Main Article Content
Background: Massage has been practiced since around 3 months of age for the purpose of interacting with children, but there are few reports on its ongoing effectiveness, no unified views, and few reports on growth and development.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of massage given by mothers to their 3-month-old infants based on autonomic activity and growth development of 4- and 5-month-old infants one month later.
Methods: The subjects were healthy 3-month-old infants and their mothers who were born as full-term, singleton babies. The study design was an inequivalent control group design: 25 mother-child pairs were massaged for one month and 12 mother-child pairs were not massaged. Data were collected twice, once on the first day at 3 months of age and one month later. As indicators of autonomic nervous system activity, axillary temperature before and after massage, heart rate and heart rate variability during massage were measured. As an indicator of growth, body weight was measured after the massage. As an indicator of development, mothers were asked to respond to a questionnaire (KIDS). The axillary temperature, rate of change in heart rate and heart rate variability, and KIDS scores were compared on the first day and one month later.
Results: Axillary temperature and LF/HF ratio of children at 1 month were significantly lower after massage (p<0.05). Overall developmental age and expressive language domain of KIDS at 1 month were more developmental than in the non-massage group (p<0.05). Heart rate and HF were not significantly different after 1 month.
Conclusion: It was found that when children received massage from their mothers for one-month, cardiac sympathetic nerve function was suppressed and the development of expressive language skills was promoted.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Articles and files in this journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abedi,F., Mirbagher Ajorpaz,N., Esalatmanesh,S., Rahemi,Z., Gilasi,H., Kafaei Atrian,M., & Hosseinian,M. (2018). The effect of tactile-kinesthetic stimulation on growth indices of healthy neonates. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies,22(2),308-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2017.08.005
Aguirre, M., Couderc, A., Epinat-D, J., & Mascaro, O. (2019). Infants discriminate the source of social touch at stroking speeds eliciting maximal firing rates in CT-fibers. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience,36,100639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100639
Ahn,Y., Önal Ertu?rul,I., Chow,S., Cohn,J., & Messinger,D.(2023). Automated measurement of infant and mother Duchenne facial expressions in the Face?to?Face/Still?Face. infancy,28(5),910-929. https://doi.org/10.1111/infa.12556
Fuji,T., Akita,N., & Taneda,M. (2021). Evaluation of the baby calming responses during swinging and sound stimuli and influence on mothers -seven to eight months old babies as a case study-. Japanese Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 26(3), 73–86. https://doi.org/10.20718/jjpa.26.3_73 (in Japanese)
Fujita, M., Endoh, Y., Saimon, N., & Yamaguchi, S. (2006). Effect of massaging babies on mothers: Pilot study on the changes in mood states and salivary cortisol level. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 12(3), 181–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2006.01.003
Gonzalez AP, Vasquez-Mendoza G, García-Vela A, Guzmán-Ramirez A, Salazar-Torres M, and Romero-Gutierrez G. (2009). Weight gain in preterm infants following parent-administered vimala massage: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Perinatol, 26:247–52. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1103151
Harrison,T., Brown,R., Duffey,T., Frey,C., Bailey,J., Nist,M., Renner,L.,& Fitch,J.(2020)
Effects of Massage on Postoperative Pain in Infants With Complex Congenital Heart Disease. Nursing Research,69,S36-S46.
Hashimoto K, Matsui N, Yakuwa H, & Miyamura K (2012) Evaluation of the Family-rated Kinder Infant Development Scale (KIDS) for Disabled Children. Jikeikai Medical Journal 59: 5-10.
Ibara,S. (2008). Care of the Mature Infant. Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica, 60(3), 973–979. (in Japanese)
Ito,R., & Kasaoki,K. (2016). The effects of baby massage on maternal attachment, feelings toward babies, and mothers’ mental health. Japanese Journal of Maternal Health, 57(2), 401–409. (in Japanese)
Iwamura,Y. (2010). Chapter 3: Tactile and Somatic Senses-Knowledge Base of IEICE. The Institute of Electronics, Communication and Information Engineers. https://www.ieice-hbkb.org/portal/doc_179.html (in Japanese)
Kamiya, C., Miyake, A., Yamada, T., Ohmi, M., & Watanabe, H. (2021). The effects of massage velocity on heart rate and heart rate variability in healthy infants: A randomized crossover study. Infant Behavior & Development, 64, 101604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infbeh.2021.101604
Kaneshige ,T & Hryu ,E. (2015). Categorization and understanding of facial expressions in 4-month-old infants. IEICE technical report?, 114(440), 133–138. (in Japanese)
Kanosue,K. (2010). Encyclopedia of Body and Temperature. Asakura Bookstore. https://www.asakura.co.jp/detail.php?book_code=30102 (in Japanese)
Kitoh,A., Hoshino,A., Shizawa,M., & Katsura,T. (2021). Relationship between Childcare Experience and Anxiety among Mothers of Infants Aged Approximately Four Months. Journal of Child Health, 80(6), 821–827. (in Japanese)
Kohara,S., Yoshida,H., & Kitaoka,K. (2001). Relationship between sympathetic tone level and electromyogram from heart rate variability during static exercise. IEICE technical report, 181, 85–90. (in Japanese)
Koizumi,H., Taga,G., Andoh,J., & Anme,T. (2010). Brain Science for Infants and Toddlers. Kamogawa Publishing Co. https://ci.nii.ac.jp/ncid/BB04780886 (in Japanese)
Lee, H. K. (2006). The effects of infant massage on weight, height, and mother-infant interaction. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi, 36(8), 1331–1339. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2006.36.8.1331
Lestari, K. P., Nurbadlina, F. R., Wagiyo, W., & Jauhar, M. (2021). The effectiveness of baby massage in increasing infant’s body weight. Journal of Public Health Research, 10(s1), jphr.2021.2332. https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2021.2332
Liao YC, Wan YH, Chen PH, & Hsieh LY. (2021). Efficacy of medium-chain triglyceride oil massage on growth in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial: a CONSORT-compliant article. Medicine (Baltimore), 100(30):e26794. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000026794
Liu,C., Liu,J., & Liu,X. (2001). Effects of touch on growth and mentality development in normal infants. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi,81(23),1420-1423. (in Chinese)
Mathews,J.(2018). A Study on the Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Neonatal Temperature and Weight Among Newborns in Cuttack. Nursing Journal of India,109(6),257-260.
Matsuda,R., Sumimoto,Y., Seko,T., Miura,S., & Hamamoto,T. (2017). Effects of Trunk Progressive Exercise on Blood Circulation and Muscle Activity in the Lumbar Dorsal Muscle Group. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 32(4), 559–562. https://doi.org/10.1589/rika.32.559 (in Japanese)
Mistry,R., Stevens,GD., Sareen,H., De Vogli,R., & Halfon,N.(2007). Parenting-related stressors and self-reported mental health of mothers with young children. American Journal of Public Health,97(7),1261-1268.
Mitani,A., & Tanaka,M. (2012). The experimental study of the response for parenting stress by BABY BICS in mother. Yamaguchi Prefectural University Academic Information, 5, 73–77. (in Japanese)
Mitsumori,Y.,& Yamaguchi,M. (2009). Investigations Concerning the Prevention of Child Abuse During the Period Mothers are Bringing Up their Children. Journal of Japanese Society of Child Health Nursing, 18(2), 22–28. https://doi.org/10.20625/jschn.18.2_22 (in Japanese)
Miyake K, Ohmura M, Takashima M, Yamanouchi S, Hashimoto T, & Kobayashi K (1990). A new Test Developmental Screening Scale? Kinder Infant Development Scale? Human Developmental Research: 6.
Nakamura, K., & Morrison, S. F. (2008). A thermosensory pathway that controls body temperature. Nature Neuroscience, 11(1), 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn2027 (in Japanese)
Nanakida,M.(2017). Is it true that infants' body temperature is 0.5°C higher?. Hijiyama University Institutional Repository,45,7-12. (in Japanese)
Nomachi,S., Tanaka,Y., Tsuchikawa,S., & Watanabe,H. (2013). Verification of the effect of baby massage on the autonomic nervous activity of mothers and infants. Kimura Foundation for Nursing Education and Promotion Collection of Nursing Research, 20, 45–50. (in Japanese)
Ohkawa,Y. (2005). Structure of Fever Displacement by Blood Flow and Regulation of Body Temperature in Organism of Human. Heat Transfer, 44(188), 7–11. https://doi.org/10.11368/htsj1999.44.188_7 (in Japanese)
Oki,S., Arisawa,K., Takahashi,T., Akiyama,T, Gotoh,Y., Fukuda,M., & Saitoh,H. (2001). The developmental effects of early intervention for very low birth weight infants. Brain and Development, 33, 31–36. (in Japanese)
Oku,N, Hashimoto,J., & Yoshida,K. (2005). Relationship between autonomic nervous system and heart rate in hypertension. The official journal of Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine, 53(3), 195–200. (in Japanese)
Okumura,Y., & Matsuo,H. (2011). The effect of baby massage on stress reactions in mother and infant. Japanese Journal of Maternal Health, 51(4), 545–556. (in Japanese)
Quinn, P. C., Yahr, J., Kuhn, A., Slater, A. M., & Pascalils, O. (2002). Representation of the gender of human faces by infants: A preference for female. Perception, 31(9), 1109–1121. https://doi.org/10.1068/p3331 (in Japanese)
Saitoh,K., Yoshikawa,Y., & Iino,K. (2002). Effects of 6 Months of Touch Care Treatment for a 3-Month-Old Infant-Development of healthy children and changes in mothers’ parenting feelings. The journal of child health, 61(2), 271–279. (in Japanese)
Saitoh,M. (2020). Heat Production by Brown Adipose Tissue and Body Temperature and Fat Regulation-Focusing on the findings in humans-. Japan J Psychosom Medicine 60,210-216. (in Japanese)
Sakaguchi,K., Ohhira,M., & Ichikawa,M. (2006). Physiological and psychological effects of mother-infant skinship on mother-infant mutuality. Japanese journal of maternal health, 47(1), 190–196. (in Japanese)
Satoh,T. (2006). Effects of Hand Massage on the Human Autonomic Nervous System and Mood in Healthy Women. Yamanashi Nursing Journal, 4(2), 25–32. (in Japanese)
Shimizu,M. (2006). Evaluation of the Autonomic Nervous System by Neonatal Heart Rate. Perinatology, 10, 1237–1242. (in Japanese)
Shirakami,K. (2008). Maternal gait development assistance behavior in infant motor development. The journal of child health, 67(4), 573–582. (in Japanese)
Tabuchi,N., Nemoto,T., Shimada,K., Matsuda,Y., Majima,K., & Furuta,H. (2011). Temperature and humidity measurements of newborn Teviron underwear immediately after birth. Journal of The Tsuruma Health Science Society Kanazawa University, 35(2), 71–78. (in Japanese)
Tanaka,Y., Watanabe,H., & Nohmachi,S. (2014). Verification of the effectiveness of baby massage for one month on a mother’s autonomic nerve activity and psychological state. Japanese Journal of Maternal Health, 55(1), 111–119. (in Japanese)
Yamaguchi,M., & Kanazawa,S. (2008). Baby’s visual and mental development. The University of Tokyo Press. (in Japanese)
Yokoyama,T., & Katoh,N. (2012). Manual for Evaluation of Physical Growth of Infants and Young Children. A Study on Statistical Analysis of Infant Physical Growth Surveys, its Methods and Utilization. (in Japanese)