Hypnobirthing as an Effort to Reduce Anxiety in Pregnant Women: A Literature Review

Main Article Content

Yulizawati Yulizawati
Hardisman Hardisman
Lulisa Desrama Tasya


Background: Pregnancy is a physiological state, they may cause anxiety because of the various discomforts that the mother feels during pregnancy. Hypnobirthing is a birthing method that uses hypnotherapy techniques to reduce anxiety and increase comfort during the birthing process. This technique is believed to be able to increase the mother's control over the birth process, as well as improve the quality of childbirth.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out how the application of hypnobirthing techniques can reduce anxiety in pregnant women

Methods: This research  method  was  a  literature  review  study.  Journal  searches  were carried out by applying online database such as Pubmed database, Garuda Portal, ScienceDirect and Google scholar. Articles were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results: The analysis was carried out on 21 research articles. It was found that hypnobirthing give comfort and confidence in the body's abilities. The application of Hypnobirthing techniques can and effectively reduce the anxiety level of pregnant women and even eliminate the anxiety during pregnancy.

Conclusion: The influence of hypnobirthing is useful in overcoming anxiety during pregnancy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yulizawati, Y., Hardisman, H., & Tasya, L. D. (2023). Hypnobirthing as an Effort to Reduce Anxiety in Pregnant Women: A Literature Review. Women, Midwives and Midwifery, 3(2), 68-78. https://doi.org/10.36749/wmm.3.2.68-78.2023


Abdollahi, L., Mirghafourvand, M., Babapour, J. K., & Mozhdeh, M. (2019). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving the quality of life and psychological fatigue in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 40(4), 283–293.

Agorastos, Heinig, Stiedl, Hager, Sommer, Müller, & Demiralay. (2019). Vagal effects of endocrine HPA axis challenges on resting autonomic activity assessed by heart rate variability measures in healthy humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 10(2), 196–203.

Amanak, K., Sevil, U., & Karacam, Z. (2019). The impact of prenatal education based on the roy adaptation model on gestational hypertension, adaptation to pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association., 69(1), 11–17.

Atis, & Gülay. (2018). The effect of hypnobirthing training given in the antenatal period on birth pain and fear. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice., 33(2), 77–84. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30396631/

Bauer, A., Knapp, M., & Parsonage, M. (2016). Lifetime costs of perinatal anxiety and depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 192, 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.12.005

Berthelot, N., Lemieux, R., Garon-Bissonnette, J., Drouin-Maziade, C., Martel, É., & Maziade, M. (2020). Uptrend in distress and psychiatric symptomatology in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 99(7), 848–855. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13925

Chen, S. L., & Chen, C. H. (2015). Effects of Lavender Tea on Fatigue, Depression, and Maternal-Infant Attachment in Sleep-Disturbed Postnatal Women. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 12(6), 370–379. https://doi.org/10.1111/wvn.12122

Einion. (2021). Hypnosis and hypnobirthing for labour - a critical selective narrative review. National Library of Medicene, 19(11), 7–26.

Esther, Marta, Joaquín, & Rodríguez. (2021). Non-pharmacological interventions to reduce anxiety in pregnancy, labour and postpartum: A systematic review. Elsevier. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0266613821002060%0A

Ferrari, Faccio, Peccatori, & Pravettoni. (2018). Psychological issues and construction of the mother-child relationship in women with cancer during pregnancy: A perspective on current and future directions. BMC Psychology, 6(1), 4–7.

Fitrianingtyas. (2022). The Influence of Hipnobirthing for Anxiety Pregnant Women in Nasrul Ummah Lamongan Hospital. Jurnal Ilmiah Kebidanan (Scientific Journal of Midwifery)., 8(1), 53–58.

Gueguen, Huas, Orri, & Falissard. (2021). Hypnosis for labour and childbirth: A meta-integration of qualitative and quantitative studies. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice., 43(5), 101–380. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33858797/

Güney, Cengizhan, Okyay, Bal, & Uçar. (2022). Effect of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program on stress, anxiety, and childbirth fear in pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice., 47(4), 101–566.

Horton, & Astudillo. (2014). The power of midwifery. The Lancet, 384(9948), 1075–1076. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60855-2

Humphrey, J. H., Mbuya, M. N. N., Ntozini, R., Moulton, L. H., Stoltzfus, R. J., Tavengwa, N. V., Mutasa, K., Majo, F., Mutasa, B., Mangwadu, G., Chasokela, C. M., Chigumira, A., Chasekwa, B., Smith, L. E., Tielsch, J. M., Jones, A. D., Manges, A. R., Maluccio, J. A., Prendergast, A. J., … Makoni, T. (2019). Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on child stunting and anaemia in rural Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet Global Health, 7(1), e132–e147. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30374-7

Idayanti, Indriyanti, & Anggraeni. (2019). The Effect of Early Breastfeeding Initiation (IMD) on New Born Baby Temperature in BPS Heppy Rina, S.St, Seduri Village-Mojosari and Bps Fifit, S.St, Panjer Village-Mojosari. Nurse and Health. Jurnal Keperawatan, 8(1), 28–35. https://doi.org/10.36720/nhjk.v8i1.59

Khuzaiyah, Anies, & Wahyuni. (2020). The Effects of Hypnosis Relaxation Towards Fetus Heart Frequency and Vital Signs among Pregnant Women with Pre-eclampsia. IJNP (Indonesian Journal of Nursing Practices)., 4(1), 37–45.

Kuswandi. (2013). Gentle Hypnobirthing A Gentle Way to Give Birth. Pustaka Bunda.

López-Morales, H., del Valle, M. V., Canet-Juric, L., Andrés, M. L., Galli, J. I., Poó, F., & Urquijo, S. (2020). Mental health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study. Psychiatry Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113567

Malahayati Inke, N. L. (2021). Effect of Aromatherapy Using Bergamot and Lavender Oils on Postpartum Blues. Evidence Based Care Journal, 10(098 51), 59–63. https://doi.org/10.22038/ebcj.2020.51871.2378

Nainggolan, Dimpu, Riance, & Paruhum. (2022). Influence of hypnobirthing on anxiety levels pregnant women in the Siatas Barita Health center work area In 2020. Embrio: Jurnal Kebidanan., 13(2), 156–163.

Nath, Venkatesh, Balan, Metgud, Krishna, & Murthy. (2019). The prevalence and determinants of pregnancy-related anxiety amongst pregnant women at less than 24 weeks of pregnancy in Bangalore, Southern India. Int J Womens Health, 11(2), 241-248.

Olendzki, Elkins, Slonena, Hung, & Rhodes. (2020). Mindful hypnotherapy to reduce stress and increase mindfulness: A randomized controlled pilot study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 68(2), 151–166.

Onah, M. N., Field, S., Bantjes, J., & Honikman, S. (2017). Perinatal suicidal ideation and behaviour: psychiatry and adversity. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 20(2), 321–331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-016-0706-5

Raju. (2014). Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Reducing Labour Pain and Duration of Labour among Primigravidas: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research, 4(2), 124–128. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/33186051/IJHSR-with-cover-page-v2.pdf?Expires=1636906687&Signature=T9KCDM~SqcrJhoIXqKBbErS536B7UYc81FfKlzZl82Nz4vMCf4dawtmze9LtXsg3PKO6FUlzPZwtPTd1AUzmOXhdtLe~Gnz6Bn8XNpFiOptY~pUV0nkbeCfYJ-y2y2XILHxy50O~Z4xcTVUn7Uf9zk

Runjati, & Nurcahyani. (2021). The Impact of Self-Affirmation Towards Stress and Anxiety Levels of Pregnant Women. In International Conference on Psychological Studies, 21(4), 46-53. https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/icpsyche-20/125955851

Schetter, & Anner. (2021). “Anxiety, Depression and Stress in Pregnancy: Implication for Mother, Children, Research, and Practice”. Curren Opinion in Psychiatry., 25(3), 2–13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4447112/

Seyed Ahmadi Nejad, F. S., Golmakani, N., Asgharipour, N., & Shakeri, M. T. (2015). ?Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on depression, anxiety, and stress of primigravid women. 5, 68–75.

Tabatabaeichehr, M., & Mortazavi, H. (2020). The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in the Management of Labor Pain and Anxiety: A Systematic Review. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, 30(3), 449–458. https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhs.v30i3.16

Takegata, Haruna, Morikawa, Yonezawa, Komada, & Severinsson. (2018). Qualitative exploration of fear of childbirth and preferences for mode of birth among Japanese primiparas. Nurs Heal Sci., 20(3), 338–345.

Uluda?, & Mete. (2021). The effect of nursing care provided based on the philosophy of hypnobirthing on fear, pain, duration, satisfaction and cost of labor: A single-blind randomized controlled study: The effect of nursing care on the labor process and cost. Health Care for Women International., 42(6), 678–690. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33179993/

Vural, & Aslan. (2019). Emotional freedom techniques and breathing awareness to reduce childbirth fear: A randomized controlled study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice., 35(3), 224–231. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31003663/

WHO. (2010). Maternal Mental Health and Child Health and Development in Low and Middle Income Countries. Geneva, Switzerland. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5392254/

Zahra. (2013). Lavender aromatherapy massages in reducing labor pain and duration of labor: A randomized controlled trial. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7(8), 456–430. https://doi.org/10.5897/ajpp12.391